2019-01-02 Updated after comments from Guy
2019-07-21 Updated after comments from Bastiaan
2019-12-14 Updated after comments from AlexWiseman & Nick
2020-01-03 Updated after email from Ron
2020-02-11 Updated after comment from Stefan
- Raspberry Pi (tested with a Raspberry Pi 2 Model B)
- Micro SD card (2GB+)
- USB Hard Drive
Setup Pi with Raspbian
Install Raspbian Buster Lite on the SD card. Follow the instructions on the Installing images tutorial on the Raspberry Pi site. Then enable SSH. Insert the SD card into the Pi, plug in the USB hard drive, plug in a network cable, and power on the Pi.
Next set a static IP address for your Raspberry Pi. Depending on your setup, you can either set the Pi to have a manual ip address or have your router assign a static IP address.
Login to your Pi via SSH or old school with a keyboard & monitor. Run raspi-config to make any changes you want like changing hostname etc.
pi@timemachine:~ $ sudo raspi-config
And update your Pi
pi@timemachine:~ $ sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get upgrade -y
Setup USB Hard drive
Install hfsutils & hfsprogs
pi@timemachine:~ $ sudo apt-get install hfsutils hfsprogs
Format USB hard drive to hfsplus. This will erase all data on the USB hard drive.
Note: this assumes your USB hard drive is sda2
pi@timemachine:~ $ sudo mkfs.hfsplus /dev/sda2 -v TimeMachine
Create mount point
pi@timemachine:~ $ sudo mkdir /media/tm && sudo chmod -R 777 /media/tm && sudo chown pi:pi /media/tm
Determine the UUID of your USB hard drive (sda2)
pi@timemachine:~ $ ls -lha /dev/disk/by-uuid
pi@timemachine:~ $ ls -lha /dev/disk/by-uuid total 0 drwxr-xr-x 2 root root 120 Sep 3 00:17 . drwxr-xr-x 8 root root 160 Sep 3 00:17 .. lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 15 Sep 3 00:13 3725-1C05 -> ../../mmcblk0p1 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Sep 3 00:17 6525d832-1a97-35a5-92a4-345253fcfd00 -> ../../sda2 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 10 Sep 3 00:17 67E3-17ED -> ../../sda1 lrwxrwxrwx 1 root root 15 Sep 3 00:13 fd695ef5-f047-44bd-b159-2a78c53af20a -> ../../mmcblk0p2
In my case the UUID is 6525d832-1a97-35a5-92a4-345253fcfd001.
Edit fstab to mount the USB hard drive
pi@timemachine:~ $ sudo nano /etc/fstab
and append this line (replacing 6525d832-1a97-35a5-92a4-345253fcfd00 with your specific UUID determined above).
UUID=6525d832-1a97-35a5-92a4-345253fcfd00 /media/tm hfsplus force,rw,user,noauto 0 0
It should end up looking something like this
proc /proc proc defaults 0 0 PARTUUID=d159f393-01 /boot vfat defaults 0 2 PARTUUID=d159f393-02 / ext4 defaults,noatime 0 1 UUID=6525d832-1a97-35a5-92a4-345253fcfd00 /media/tm hfsplus force,rw,user,noauto 0 0
Test that mounting works as expected
pi@timemachine:~ $ sudo mount /media/tm
pi@timemachine:~ $ df -h Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on /dev/root 15G 1.4G 13G 10% / devtmpfs 484M 0 484M 0% /dev tmpfs 489M 0 489M 0% /dev/shm tmpfs 489M 13M 476M 3% /run tmpfs 5.0M 8.0K 5.0M 1% /run/lock tmpfs 489M 0 489M 0% /sys/fs/cgroup /dev/mmcblk0p1 43M 22M 21M 51% /boot /dev/sda2 699G 300M 668G 0% /media/tm tmpfs 98M 0 98M 0% /run/user/1000
should show a line like
/dev/sda2 699G 300M 668G 0% /media/tm
Note: we are not automatically mounting this USB hard drive as mounting USB on startup can be flakey
pi@timemachine:~ $ sudo apt-get install netatalk -y
and ensure everything worked
pi@timemachine:~ $ netatalk -V netatalk 3.1.12 - Netatalk AFP server service controller daemon This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version. Please see the file COPYING for further information and details. netatalk has been compiled with support for these features: Zeroconf support: Avahi Spotlight support: Yes afpd: /usr/sbin/afpd cnid_metad: /usr/sbin/cnid_metad tracker manager: /usr/bin/tracker daemon dbus-daemon: /usr/bin/dbus-daemon afp.conf: /etc/netatalk/afp.conf dbus-session.conf: /etc/netatalk/dbus-session.conf netatalk lock file: /var/lock/netatalk
pi@timemachine:~ $ sudo nano /etc/nsswitch.conf
append mdns4 and mdns to the line that starts with hosts. It should end up looking something like this.
# /etc/nsswitch.conf # # Example configuration of GNU Name Service Switch functionality. # If you have the `glibc-doc-reference' and `info' packages installed, try: # `info libc "Name Service Switch"' for information about this file. passwd: compat group: compat shadow: compat gshadow: files hosts: files mdns4_minimal [NOTFOUND=return] dns mdns4 mdns networks: files protocols: db files services: db files ethers: db files rpc: db files netgroup: nis
Finally edit afp.conf
pi@timemachine:~ $ sudo nano /etc/netatalk/afp.conf
[Global] mimic model = TimeCapsule6,106 [Time Machine] path = /media/tm time machine = yes
Launch the two services
pi@timemachine:~ $ sudo service avahi-daemon start
pi@timemachine:~ $ sudo service netatalk start
Mount and start services on boot
pi@timemachine:~ $ sudo crontab -e
@reboot sleep 30 && mount /media/tm && sleep 30 && umount /media/tm && sleep 30 && mount /media/tm && sleep 30 && service avahi-daemon start && service netatalk start
Note: this mount / unmount / mount flow is required as HFS+ partitions may become read only if unmounted incorrectly. The 30 second sleeps give the USB hard drive time to spin up and become mounted before the avahi-daemon & netatalk services start
Connect to Time Machine
Connect to server
Login creds will be the same as your ssh creds on the pi
Note: default creds username: pi & password: raspberry
Open the Time Machine settings and you should see your new network time machine server
References: this is an updated version of a How to Geek article with some tweaks for flaky USB hard drives and updates for the latest packages.
Read only drive
If your drive becomes read only you can try either changing the permissions of the directory
sudo chown pi:pi /media/tm
or forcing fsck.hfsplus to check and repair journaled HFS+ file systems
sudo fsck.hfsplus -f /dev/sda1